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Citation Guide: Sermons, Speeches, & Lectures

Speeches, Sermons, & Lectures


#. Speaker’s firstname lastname, “Title of speech/sermon/lecture” (type of address, location of address, date).

#. Emily Gage, “Thanks for Listening” (sermon, Unity Temple, Oak Park, IL, July 16, 2023).

Shortened footnote

#. Speaker’s lastname, “Shortened Title.”

#. Gage, “Thanks for Listening.” 


#. Speaker’s Firstname Lastname, "Title of Address," (type of address, location of address, date), Website Name, URL.

#. Kamala Harris, “Remarks by Vice President Harris on Combatting Climate Change and Building a Clean Energy Economy” (speech, Coppin State University, Baltimore, MD, July 14, 2023),,

Shortened footnote

#. Speaker’s Lastname, “Shortened Title.”

#. Harris, “Remarks.”


Speaker’s Lastname, Firstname.  “Title of Address.”  Type of address, location, date.  Website Name.  URL.

Harris, Kamala, “Remarks by Vice President Harris on Combatting Climate Change and Building a Clean Energy Economy.” Speech given at Coppin State University, Baltimore, MD, July 14, 2023.

If your paper includes an original idea, concept, or quotation that you learned from an instructor's lecture, you must cite it!


         #. Lecturer’s firstname lastname, “Title of Lecture,” Course # and Name (class lecture, institution, place, date).

         #. Michael S. Hogue, “Practicing Climate Justice,” Cosmos and Ethos: Climate Justice and Theology (class lecture, Meadville Lombard Theological School, April 7, 2017).

Shortened footnote

         #. Lecturer’s lastname, “Shortened Title.”

         #. Hogue, “Practicing Climate Justice.”


Lecturer’s lastname, firstname.  “Title of Lecture.” Course # and Name. Class lecture at institution, place, date.

Hogue, Michael S. “Practicing Climate Justice.” Cosmos and Ethos: Climate Justice and Theology.  Class lecture at Meadville Lombard Theological School, April 7, 2017.

Using Stable URLs

A bibliographic citation is meant to give the reader all of the information she needs to find and access the source being cited.  When citing online content, that means including the web address, otherwise known as the URL or Uniform Resource Locator.  Citing websites can be tricky.  While many works on the internet are freely open to anyone, many others are only available to verified users with a login or users who pay to get access to something behind a paywall.  If you are citing a source that requires a login or is behind a paywall, you MUST use what is variously called a stable URL or permalink. While a stable URL/permalink will not necessarily give every reader access to the article or content, they will at least be directed to a page that shows that the article is indeed there.  If you instead put a non-stable URL, like the URL from the top browser bar, then a reader who types in or click on that link will not be directed to that article.

One specific type of stable URL is a DOI (Digital Object Identifier), a URL which is permanently linked to that object.  Anyone making online content can register their content with the DOI organization.  DOIs all begin or

Many article databases note a stable URL or include a tool for finding one.  On JSTOR, a stable URL and DOI can be found on the left side of the page when you click on an article.  On EBSCO Academic Search Complete, there is an option for obtaining a permalink at the bottom of the right-hand column; look for the chain-link icon.   Click on it and the permalink will appear above the article title.

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